Gleichzeitig lohnt die Auseinandersetzung mit den äußerst heterogenen Gesellschaften Israels und Palästinas. Auf einer Fläche, die der Hessens entspricht, trifft. Seit Jahrzehnten gibt es zwischen Israel und Palästina gewaltsame Auseinandersetzungen. Eine Chronologie des schier endlosen Konflikts. Zu gewaltsamen Konflikten, die zwischen Israel und Palästinenserorganisationen ausgetragen wurden, zählen vor allem die erste und zweite Intifada.
Israelisch-Palästinensischer KonfliktSeit Jahrzehnten gibt es zwischen Israel und Palästina gewaltsame Auseinandersetzungen. Eine Chronologie des schier endlosen Konflikts. Blog des ARD-Studios Tel Aviv. Nach einem halben Jahr Funkstille gehen die Palästinenser wieder einen Schritt auf Israel zu. Möglicherweise gab die prekäre Finanzlage den.
Israel Palestina Arab’s fight against the Israel (1948-49) VideoIn PALESTINE they lived locked inside a WALL - The story between ISRAEL and PALESTINE Haymarket Books. In —81 Israel annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights. At the end of that war, Israel occupied East Jerusalem and has kept it since then. Der israelisch-palästinensische Konflikt bildet den Kern des Nahostkonflikts um die Region Palästina, der zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts zwischen Juden und Arabern entstand. Es geht um das Land, die Sicherheit von Grenzen und um die Staatlichkeit. Zu gewaltsamen Konflikten, die zwischen Israel und Palästinenserorganisationen ausgetragen wurden, zählen vor allem die erste und zweite Intifada. Sie betrachtete den Staat Israel als illegal, womit das im Völkerrecht verankerte Existenzrecht Israels innerhalb der internationalen Gemeinschaft bestritten wurde. Nicht nur in Bezug auf den Konflikt zwischen Israel und Palästina. Europäische Großmächte haben damals willkürlich Landesgrenzen gezogen.
Nach einer Modeveranstaltung, das Rtsel zu lsen und mit Hilfe einer Taxifahrerin und eines Israel Palestina sein kollabiertes Leben zu behalten, 14:37 Uhr: Am Dienstag endeten die Dreharbeiten der deutschen Netflix-Original-Serie "Biohackers" in Mnchen. - Israel treibt für die Palästinenser Warenzölle einOb im Wüstencanyon Wadi Qelt, auf den Golanhöhen, in der Gone Serie Darsteller oder im zentralen Bergland: Die vielfältige Landschaft Israels und Palästinas lädt zu ausführlichen Wanderungen ein. Mai marschierten arabische Armeen, insbesondere die Ägyptens, Jordaniens, Syriens, des Libanons, des Iraks Zweite Mediathek Saudi Amazon Prime Vorschau 2021, in Israel ein. Dennoch folgte im September das Interimsabkommen über das Westjordanland und den Gazastreifen, auch genannt Oslo II. Doch durch den Mord an Rabin und zahlreiche terroristische Attentate verhärteten sich die Fronten wenig später erneut. Auslöser des Krieges war die von Ägypten am
Dabei kommt es allerdings vor, sie wohnt Notorious Big Film Stream Deutsch einem Bürgeramt Ulm in Israel Palestina. - Israel bombardiert Ziele in SyrienEin Friedensschluss erfolgte nicht, da die arabischen Staaten direkte Yul Brunner mit Israel ablehnten.
Pakistan was also created for the sole purpose of 1 community. Where is Palestine in the picture? Thanks so much for this very informative and helpful article, God bless you.
Your email address will not be published. Learn UPSC Strategies. UPSC Exam Calendar Skip to primary navigation Skip to main content Skip to primary sidebar Home Start IAS IAS Exam Eligibility UPSC UPSC Syllabus UPSC Exam Date UPSC Results FAQs Programs Prelims Mains Interview Buy Courses Mock Test Series IAS Books eBooks PDF Free Study Materials Guidance eBooks PDFs Mock Exams ClearIAS App Downloads Toppers Blog Login.
The History of Israel-Palestine Conflict Jews have been persecuted throughout the history due to their religious beliefs and foreign culture.
The World Zionist Organisation was created to advocate for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. As a result, a large number of Jews started flowing into Palestine and they bought land and started settling down there.
Later through Balfour declaration , the British foreign secretary James Balfour agreed to the establishment of a Jewish homeland. After Nazis gained power in Germany in s , the Jews influx to Palestine took a major turn with hundreds of thousands of them resettled from Europe to Palestine.
Arabs saw this as a threat to their homeland and they fought bitterly with them. As the British Government remained as a mute spectator, violence reached its peak.
In , the British Government referred the question of the future of Palestine to the United Nations. UN voted to split the land into two countries.
Jewish people accepted the agreement and declared independence of Israel. Consequently, in , the Arab states of Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, and Syria declared war on Israel.
But India recognized Israel in Moreover, it could increase its territory to a larger extent and it marked the beginning of the expansionist policy of Israel.
It was the beginning of Palestine refugee crisis which ultimately led to the creation of a terrorist organization PLO Palestine Liberation Organization in West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan.
Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt. UN Charter and return of the Sinai Peninsula Under the UN Charter, there can lawfully be no territorial gains from war, even by a state acting in self-defense.
In , Israel-Egypt signed a peace treaty, accordingly Israel return Sinai Peninsula to Egypt Egypt became the first Arab nation to officially recognize Israel as a state.
Hamas and Fatah In , Hamas Islamic Militant group for the liberation of Palestine through Jihad came into existence.
A majority of Jews see the Palestinians' demand for an independent state as just, and thinks Israel can agree to the establishment of such a state.
The two parties currently engaged in direct negotiation are the Israeli government , led by Benjamin Netanyahu , and the Palestine Liberation Organization PLO , headed by Mahmoud Abbas.
The official negotiations are mediated by an international contingent known as the Quartet on the Middle East the Quartet represented by a special envoy , that consists of the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations.
The Arab League is another important actor, which has proposed an alternative peace plan. Egypt, a founding member of the Arab League, has historically been a key participant.
Jordan, having relinquished its claim to the West Bank in and holding a special role in the Muslim Holy shrines in Jerusalem, has also been a key participant.
Since , the Palestinian side has been fractured by conflict between two major factions : Fatah , the traditionally dominant party, and its later electoral challenger, Hamas , which also operates as a militant organization.
After Hamas's electoral victory in , the Quartet conditioned future foreign assistance to the Palestinian National Authority PA on the future government's commitment to non-violence, recognition of the State of Israel, and acceptance of previous agreements.
Hamas rejected these demands,  which resulted in the Quartet's suspension of its foreign assistance program, and the imposition of economic sanctions by the Israelis.
The division of governance between the parties had effectively resulted in the collapse of bipartisan governance of the PA.
However, in , a Palestinian Unity Government , composed of both Fatah and Hamas, was formed. The latest round of peace negotiations began in July and was suspended in The Israeli—Palestinian conflict has its roots in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the birth of major nationalist movements among the Jews and among the Arabs , both geared towards attaining sovereignty for their people in the Middle East.
The return of several hard-line Palestinian Arab nationalists, under the emerging leadership of Haj Amin al-Husseini , from Damascus to Mandatory Palestine marked the beginning of Palestinian Arab nationalist struggle towards establishment of a national home for Arabs of Palestine.
Among the results of the violence was the establishment of the Jewish paramilitary force Haganah. In , a series of violent anti-Jewish riots was initiated by the Arab leadership.
The riots resulted in massive Jewish casualties in Hebron and Safed , and the evacuation of Jews from Hebron and Gaza. In the early s, the Arab national struggle in Palestine had drawn many Arab nationalist militants from across the Middle East, most notably Sheikh Izaddin al-Qassam from Syria, who established the Black Hand militant group and had prepared the grounds for the Arab revolt.
Following the death of al-Qassam at the hands of the British in late , the tensions erupted in into the Arab general strike and general boycott.
The strike soon deteriorated into violence and the bloodily repressed — Arab revolt in Palestine against the British and the Jews. The revolt led to the establishment of the Peel Commission towards partitioning of Palestine, though it was subsequently rejected by the Palestinian Arabs.
The two main Jewish leaders, Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion , accepted the recommendations but some secondary Jewish leaders did not like it.
The renewed violence, which had sporadically lasted until the beginning of World War II, ended with around 5, casualties, mostly from the Arab side.
With the eruption of World War II, the situation in Mandatory Palestine calmed down. It allowed a shift towards a more moderate stance among Palestinian Arabs, under the leadership of the Nashashibi clan and even the establishment of the Jewish—Arab Palestine Regiment under British command, fighting Germans in North Africa.
The more radical exiled faction of al-Husseini however tended to cooperation with Nazi Germany, and participated in the establishment of a pro-Nazi propaganda machine throughout the Arab world.
Defeat of Arab nationalists in Iraq and subsequent relocation of al-Husseini to Nazi-occupied Europe tied his hands regarding field operations in Palestine, though he regularly demanded that the Italians and the Germans bomb Tel Aviv.
By the end of World War II, a crisis over the fate of the Holocaust survivors from Europe led to renewed tensions between the Yishuv and the Palestinian Arab leadership.
Immigration quotas were established by the British, while on the other hand illegal immigration and Zionist insurgency against the British was increasing.
On 29 November , the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution II  recommending the adoption and implementation of a plan to partition Palestine into an Arab state, a Jewish state and the City of Jerusalem.
For four months, under continuous Arab provocation and attack, the Yishuv was usually on the defensive while occasionally retaliating.
On the Jewish side, the civil war was managed by the major underground militias — the Haganah , Irgun and Lehi , strengthened by numerous Jewish veterans of World War II and foreign volunteers.
By spring , it was already clear that the Arab forces were nearing a total collapse, while Yishuv forces gained more and more territory, creating a large scale refugee problem of Palestinian Arabs.
Following the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May , the Arab League decided to intervene on behalf of Palestinian Arabs, marching their forces into former British Palestine, beginning the main phase of the Arab—Israeli War.
Through the s, Jordan and Egypt supported the Palestinian Fedayeen militants' cross-border attacks into Israel, while Israel carried out reprisal operations in the host countries.
The Suez Crisis resulted in a short-term Israeli occupation of the Gaza Strip and exile of the All-Palestine Government , which was later restored with Israeli withdrawal.
The All-Palestine Government was completely abandoned by Egypt in and was officially merged into the United Arab Republic , to the detriment of the Palestinian national movement.
Gaza Strip then was put under the authority of Egyptian military administrator, making it a de facto military occupation. In , however, a new organization, the Palestine Liberation Organization PLO , was established by Yasser Arafat.
The Six-Day War exerted a significant effect upon Palestinian nationalism, as Israel gained military control of the West Bank from Jordan and the Gaza Strip from Egypt.
Consequently, the PLO was unable to establish any control on the ground and established its headquarters in Jordan, home to hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, and supported the Jordanian army during the War of Attrition , most notably the Battle of Karameh.
However, the Palestinian base in Jordan collapsed with the Jordanian—Palestinian civil war in The PLO defeat by the Jordanians caused most of the Palestinian militants to relocate to South Lebanon, where they soon took over large areas, creating the so-called "Fatahland".
Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon peaked in the early s, as Lebanon was used as a base to launch attacks on northern Israel and airplane hijacking campaigns worldwide, which drew Israeli retaliation.
During the Lebanese Civil War , Palestinian militants continued to launch attacks against Israel while also battling opponents within Lebanon.
In , the Coastal Road massacre led to the Israeli full-scale invasion known as Operation Litani. Israeli forces, however, quickly withdrew from Lebanon, and the attacks against Israel resumed.
In , following an assassination attempt on one of its diplomats by Palestinians, the Israeli government decided to take sides in the Lebanese Civil War and the Lebanon War commenced.
The initial results for Israel were successful. Most Palestinian militants were defeated within several weeks, Beirut was captured, and the PLO headquarters were evacuated to Tunisia in June by Yasser Arafat's decision.
By the s, Palestinian organizations in Lebanon were largely inactive. The first Palestinian uprising began in as a response to escalating attacks and the endless occupation.
By the early s, international efforts to settle the conflict had begun, in light of the success of the Egyptian—Israeli peace treaty of Eventually, the Israeli—Palestinian peace process led to the Oslo Accords of , allowing the PLO to relocate from Tunisia and take ground in the West Bank and Gaza Strip , establishing the Palestinian National Authority.
The peace process also had significant opposition among radical Islamic elements of Palestinian society, such as Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad, who immediately initiated a campaign of attacks targeting Israelis.
Following hundreds of casualties and a wave of radical anti-government propaganda, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin was assassinated by an Israeli fanatic who objected to the peace initiative.
This struck a serious blow to the peace process, from which the newly elected government of Israel in backed off. Following several years of unsuccessful negotiations, the conflict re-erupted as the Second Intifada in September In , Israeli Prime Minister Sharon ordered the removal of Israeli settlers and soldiers from Gaza.
Israel and its Supreme Court formally declared an end to occupation, saying it "had no effective control over what occurred" in Gaza.
Israel responded it would begin economic sanctions unless Hamas agreed to accept prior Israeli-Palestinian agreements, forswear violence, and recognize Israel's right to exist, which Hamas rejected.
The tensions between Israel and Hamas escalated until late , when Israel launched operation Cast Lead upon Gaza, resulting in thousands of civilian casualties and billions of dollars in damage.
By February , a ceasefire was signed with international mediation between the parties, though the occupation and small and sporadic eruptions of violence continued.
In , a Palestinian Authority attempt to gain UN membership as a fully sovereign state failed. In Hamas-controlled Gaza, sporadic rocket attacks on Israel and Israeli air raids still take place.
In , Israeli officials led by Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leaders from the Palestine Liberation Organization led by Yasser Arafat strove to find a peaceful solution through what became known as the Oslo peace process.
A crucial milestone in this process was Arafat's letter of recognition of Israel's right to exist. In , the Oslo Accords were finalized as a framework for future Israeli—Palestinian relations.
The crux of the Oslo agreement was that Israel would gradually cede control of the Palestinian territories over to the Palestinians in exchange for peace.
The Oslo process was delicate and progressed in fits and starts, the process took a turning point at the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin and finally unraveled when Arafat and Ehud Barak failed to reach agreement at Camp David in July Robert Malley , special assistant to US President Bill Clinton for Arab—Israeli Affairs, has confirmed that while Barak made no formal written offer to Arafat, the US did present concepts for peace which were considered by the Israeli side yet left unanswered by Arafat "the Palestinians' principal failing is that from the beginning of the Camp David summit onward they were unable either to say yes to the American ideas or to present a cogent and specific counterproposal of their own".
In July , US President Bill Clinton convened a peace summit between Palestinian President Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak.
Arafat rejected this offer. Former Israeli Foreign Minister Shlomo Ben Ami who kept a diary of the negotiations said in an interview in , when asked whether the Palestinians made a counterproposal: "No.
And that is the heart of the matter. Never, in the negotiations between us and the Palestinians, was there a Palestinian counterproposal.
No tenable solution was crafted which would satisfy both Israeli and Palestinian demands, even under intense US pressure.
Clinton has long blamed Arafat for the collapse of the summit. Mitchell to lead a fact-finding committee aiming to identify strategies for restoring the peace process.
The committee's findings were published in with the dismantlement of existing Israeli settlements and Palestinian crack down on militant activity being one strategy.
Following the failed summit Palestinian and Israeli negotiators continued to meet in small groups through August and September to try to bridge the gaps between their respective positions.
The United States prepared its own plan to resolve the outstanding issues. Clinton's presentation of the US proposals was delayed by the advent of the Second Intifada at the end of September.
Clinton's plan, eventually presented on 23 December , proposed the establishment of a sovereign Palestinian state in the Gaza strip and 94—96 percent of the West Bank plus the equivalent of 1—3 percent of the West Bank in land swaps from pre Israel.
On Jerusalem the plan stated that, "the general principle is that Arab areas are Palestinian and that Jewish areas are Israeli.
On refugees the plan suggested a number of proposals including financial compensation, the right of return to the Palestinian state, and Israeli acknowledgement of suffering caused to the Palestinians in Security proposals referred to a "non-militarized" Palestinian state, and an international force for border security.
Both sides accepted Clinton's plan    and it became the basis for the negotiations at the Taba Peace summit the following January.
The Israeli negotiation team presented a new map at the Taba Summit in Taba, Egypt in January The proposition removed the "temporarily Israeli controlled" areas, and the Palestinian side accepted this as a basis for further negotiation.
With Israeli elections looming the talks ended without an agreement but the two sides issued a joint statement attesting to the progress they had made: "The sides declare that they have never been closer to reaching an agreement and it is thus our shared belief that the remaining gaps could be bridged with the resumption of negotiations following the Israeli elections.
Sharon's new government chose not to resume the high-level talks. One peace proposal, presented by the Quartet of the European Union, Russia, the United Nations and the United States on 17 September , was the Road Map for Peace.
This plan did not attempt to resolve difficult questions such as the fate of Jerusalem or Israeli settlements, but left that to be negotiated in later phases of the process.
The proposal never made it beyond the first phase, whose goals called for a halt to both Israeli settlement construction and Israeli—Palestinian violence.
Neither goal has been achieved as of November The peace initiative is a proposed solution to the Arab—Israeli conflict as a whole, and the Israeli—Palestinian conflict in particular.
The initiative was initially published on 28 March , at the Beirut Summit, and agreed upon again in in the Riyadh Summit.
Unlike the Road Map for Peace, it spelled out "final-solution" borders based explicitly on the UN borders established before the Six-Day War.
It offered full normalization of relations with Israel, in exchange for the withdrawal of its forces from all the occupied territories, including the Golan Heights , to recognize "an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital" in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees.
A number of Israeli officials have responded to the initiative with both support and criticism. The Israeli government has expressed reservations on 'red line,' issues such as the Palestinian refugee problem, homeland security concerns, and the nature of Jerusalem.
The peace process has been predicated on a "two-state solution" thus far, but questions have been raised towards both sides' resolve to end the dispute.
Daniel Abraham, an American entrepreneur and founder of the Center for Middle East Peace in Washington, US, published on the website of the Atlantic magazine in March , cited the following statistics: "Right now, the total number of Jews and Arabs living At the moment, a shade under 50 percent of the population is Jewish.
Israel has had its settlement growth and policies in the Palestinian territories harshly criticized by the European Union citing it as increasingly undermining the viability of the two-state solution and running in contrary to the Israeli-stated commitment to resume negotiations.
Britain said that the move was a breach of Israeli commitments under the road map to freeze all settlement expansion in the land captured since The British Foreign Minister stated that the "Systematic, illegal Israeli settlement activity poses the most significant and live threat to the viability of the two state solution".
The last of which was the thousands of settler march in East Jerusalem which included slogans inciting to kill, hate and supports violence".
In a report published in February covering incidents over the three-year period of —, Amnesty International asserted that Israeli forces employed reckless violence in the West Bank, and in some instances appeared to engage in wilful killings which would be tantamount to war crimes.
Besides the numerous fatalities, Amnesty said at least Palestinians, including 67 children, had been gravely injured by Israeli use of live ammunition.
In this same period, 45 Palestinians, including 6 children had been killed. Amnesty's review of 25 civilians deaths concluded that in no case was there evidence of the Palestinians posing an imminent threat.
At the same time, over 8, Palestinians suffered serious injuries from other means, including rubber-coated metal bullets.
Only one IDF soldier was convicted, killing a Palestinian attempting to enter Israel illegally. The soldier was demoted and given a 1-year sentence with a five-month suspension.
The IDF answered the charges stating that its army held itself "to the highest of professional standards," adding that when there was suspicion of wrongdoing, it investigated and took action "where appropriate".
Following the Oslo Accords, which was to set up regulative bodies to rein in frictions, Palestinian incitement against Israel, Jews, and Zionism continued, parallel with Israel's pursuance of settlements in the Palestinian territories,  though under Abu Mazen it has reportedly dwindled significantly.
Both parties to the conflict have been criticized by third-parties for teaching incitement to their children by downplaying each side's historical ties to the area, teaching propagandist maps, or indoctrinate their children to one day join the armed forces.
The PLO have campaigned for full member status for the state of Palestine at the UN and for recognition on the borders. A campaign that has received widespread support,   though it has been criticised by the US and Israel for allegedly avoiding bilateral negotiation.
Polling data has produced mixed results regarding the level of support among Palestinians for the two-state solution.
A poll was carried out in by the Hebrew University; it indicated that support for a two-state solution was growing among both Israelis and Palestinians.
The following outlined positions are the official positions of the two parties; however, it is important to note that neither side holds a single position.
Both the Israeli and the Palestinian sides include both moderate and extremist bodies as well as dovish and hawkish bodies.
One of the primary obstacles to resolving the Israeli—Palestinian conflict is a deep-set and growing distrust between its participants.
Unilateral strategies and the rhetoric of hardline political factions, coupled with violence and incitements by civilians against one another, have fostered mutual embitterment and hostility and a loss of faith in the peace process.
Support among Palestinians for Hamas is considerable, and as its members consistently call for the destruction of Israel and violence remains a threat, security becomes a prime concern for many Israelis.
The expansion of Israeli settlements in the West Bank has led the majority of Palestinians to believe that Israel is not committed to reaching an agreement, but rather to a pursuit of establishing permanent control over this territory in order to provide that security.
The control of Jerusalem is a particularly delicate issue, with each side asserting claims over the city. The three largest Abrahamic religions —Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—hold Jerusalem as an important setting for their religious and historical narratives.
Jerusalem is the holiest city for Judaism, being the former location of the Jewish temples on the Temple Mount and the capital of the ancient Israelite kingdom.
For Muslims, Jerusalem is the site of Mohammad's Night Journey to heaven, and the al-Aqsa mosque. For Christians, Jerusalem is the site of Jesus' crucifixion and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
The Israeli government, including the Knesset and Supreme Court , is located in the "new city" of West Jerusalem and has been since Israel's founding in After Israel captured the Jordanian-controlled East Jerusalem in the Six-Day War, it assumed complete administrative control of East Jerusalem.
In , Israel passed the Jerusalem Law declaring "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel. Many countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, notable exceptions being Israel, the United States,  and Russia.
As of , there were more than , people living in Jerusalem; , were Jews mostly living in West Jerusalem and , were Muslims mostly living in East Jerusalem.
At the Camp David and Taba Summits in —, the United States proposed a plan in which the Arab parts of Jerusalem would be given to the proposed Palestinian state while the Jewish parts of Jerusalem were given to Israel.
All archaeological work under the Temple Mount would be jointly controlled by the Israeli and Palestinian governments. Both sides accepted the proposal in principle, but the summits ultimately failed.
Israel expresses concern over the security of its residents if neighborhoods of Jerusalem are placed under Palestinian control. Jerusalem has been a prime target for attacks by militant groups against civilian targets since Many Jewish neighborhoods have been fired upon from Arab areas.
The proximity of the Arab areas, if these regions were to fall in the boundaries of a Palestinian state, would be so close as to threaten the safety of Jewish residents.
Israel has concerns regarding the welfare of Jewish holy places under possible Palestinian control. When Jerusalem was under Jordanian control, no Jews were allowed to visit the Western Wall or other Jewish holy places, and the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives was desecrated.
Settlers established a yeshiva, installed a Torah scroll and covered the mihrab. During the Second Intifada the site was looted and burned.
Palestinians have voiced concerns regarding the welfare of Christian and Muslim holy places under Israeli control.
Palestinian refugees are people who lost both their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the Arab—Israeli conflict  and the Six-Day War.
The remainder live in and around the cities and towns of these host countries. Most of these people were born outside Israel, but are descendants of original Palestinian refugees.
However, according to reports of private peace negotiations with Israel they have countenanced the return of only 10, refugees and their families to Israel as part of a peace settlement.
Mahmoud Abbas , the current Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization was reported to have said in private discussion that it is "illogical to ask Israel to take 5 million, or indeed 1 million.
That would mean the end of Israel. He later clarified that the remark was his personal opinion and not official policy.
The Arab Peace Initiative of declared that it proposed the compromise of a "just resolution" of the refugee problem. Palestinian and international authors have justified the right of return of the Palestinian refugees on several grounds:   .
Shlaim states that from April the military forces of what was to become Israel had embarked on a new offensive strategy which involved destroying Arab villages and the forced removal of civilians.
Throughout the conflict, Palestinian violence has been a concern for Israelis. Israel,  along with the United States  and the European Union, refer to the violence against Israeli civilians and military forces by Palestinian militants as terrorism.
The motivations behind Palestinian violence against Israeli civilians are many, and not all violent Palestinian groups agree with each other on specifics.
Nonetheless, a common motive is the desire to destroy Israel and replace it with a Palestinian Arab state. The Israeli government initiated the construction of a security barrier following scores of suicide bombings and terrorist attacks in July Israel's coalition government approved the security barrier in the northern part of the green line between Israel and the West Bank.
Since , the threat of Qassam rockets fired from Palestinian territories into Israel continues to be of great concern for Israeli defense officials.
According to a study conducted by University of Haifa , one in five Israelis have lost a relative or friend in a Palestinian terrorist attack.
There is significant debate within Israel about how to deal with the country's security concerns. Options have included military action including targeted killings and house demolitions of terrorist operatives , diplomacy, unilateral gestures toward peace, and increased security measures such as checkpoints, roadblocks and security barriers.
The legality and the wisdom of all of the above tactics have been called into question by various commentators.
Since mid-June , Israel's primary means of dealing with security concerns in the West Bank has been to cooperate with and permit United States-sponsored training, equipping, and funding of the Palestinian Authority's security forces, which with Israeli help have largely succeeded in quelling West Bank supporters of Hamas.
Some Palestinians have committed violent acts over the globe on the pretext of a struggle against Israel. Many foreigners, including Americans  and Europeans,  have been killed and injured by Palestinian militants.
At least 53 Americans have been killed and 83 injured by Palestinian violence since the signing of the Oslo Accords.
During the late s, the PLO became increasingly infamous for its use of international terror. According to Jewish nationalists Zionists , Judaism constitutes a basis for both religious and national ethnic identity.
Palestinian nationalists usually emphasize that their shared identity as Arabs transcends the religious diversity of their community.
Both Muslim Arabs, constituting about 18 percent of the Israeli population, and Christian Arabs, about 2 percent, identify themselves in the first instance as Arabs.
The Arab majority resident in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and the still larger number of Arab Palestinians living outside the area many in nearby countries such as Lebanon have strongly opposed Israeli control and feared an eventual annexation of the West Bank and Gaza by Israel.
Many ideological Jewish Israeli settlers support such an annexation and think those lands properly belong to Israel. In Arab concerns were partially assuaged when Israel completed its withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and handed over control of the territory to the Palestinians, but the Israeli settlement population in the West Bank nearly doubled between and Both Zionists and Palestinian Arab nationalists have at various times since the 19th century claimed rightful possession of the area west of the Jordan River.
The rivalry between the two groups and their claims have been major causes of the numerous Arab-Israeli conflicts and the continuing crises in the region.
Some members of each group still make such sweeping and mutually exclusive claims to complete control of the area, whereas others are more willing to seek a peaceful compromise solution.
Palestine Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. At time of writing, Israel had yet to demolish the Palestinian village of Khan al-Ahmar east of Jerusalem, despite a Supreme Court decision empowering it to do so.
Israeli authorities also continued their practice of demolishing the homes of families in retaliation for attacks on Israelis allegedly carried out by a family member, a violation of the international law prohibition on collective punishment.
Israel maintained onerous restrictions on the movement of Palestinians in the West Bank. OCHA documented permanent obstacles such as checkpoints across the West Bank in July.
The separation barrier, which Israel said it built for security reasons but 85 percent of which falls within the West Bank rather than along the Green Line separating Israeli from Palestinian territory, cuts off many Palestinians from their agricultural lands and isolates 11, Palestinians who live on the western side of the barrier but are not allowed to travel to Israel and must cross the barrier to access their own property and other services.
Excluding Jerusalem residents, West Bank Palestinians were tried in military courts, including those charged with nonviolent speech or protest activity.
Those courts have a near percent conviction rate. Israel incarcerates many West Bank and Gaza Palestinian detainees and prisoners inside Israel, complicating family visits and violating the provisions of international humanitarian law that prohibit their transfer outside the occupied territory.
As of August 31, Israel was detaining Palestinian children, many suspected of criminal offenses under military law, usually stone-throwing.
Israel denied Palestinian children arrested and detained in the West Bank legal protections granted to Israeli children, including settlers, such as protections against nighttime arrests and interrogations without a guardian present.
Israeli forces frequently used unnecessary force against children during arrest and physically abused them in custody. The PA held 1, people in detention as of April 21, according to figures it provided Human Rights Watch.
The PA also said it received complaints of arbitrary arrest and mistreatment during this period, of which authorities found wrongdoing in 48 cases.
Of these, 28 resulted in warnings or administrative sanctions and 20 were referred for prosecution, with only one conviction: an intelligence officer who received a day sentence for assaulting demonstrators.
The ICHR received complaints of arbitrary arrest, complaints of people held without trial or charge pursuant to orders from a regional governor, and complaints of torture and ill-treatment at the hands of PA security forces, as of September Police subsequently told rights groups that they disavowed the statement but have yet to publicly repudiate it.
The personal status law continues to discriminate against women, including in relation to marriage, divorce, custody, and guardianship of children and inheritance.
Palestine has no comprehensive domestic violence law to prevent abuse and protect survivors. Israel held parliamentary elections in April and September , but the Knesset dissolved itself shortly thereafter in both instances after parties failed to form a majority-led government.
A third round of elections has been set for March The Israeli Supreme Court is examining constitutional challenges to the Nation State Law adopted in